Brazil Mathematical Olympiad 2014

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ meet at point $P$. The inradii of triangles $ABP$, $BCP$, $CDP$ and $DAP$ are ...

  1. Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral. Diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ meet at point $P$. The inradii of triangles $ABP$, $BCP$, $CDP$ and $DAP$ are equal. Prove that $ABCD$ is a rhombus.
  2. Find all integers $n$, $n>1$, with the following property: for all $k$, $0\le k < n$, there exists a multiple of $n$ whose digits sum leaves a remainder of $k$ when divided by $n$.
  3. Let $N$ be an integer, $N>2$. Arnold and Bernold play the following game: there are initially $N$ tokens on a pile. Arnold plays first and removes $k$ tokens from the pile, $1\le k < N$. Then Bernold removes $m$ tokens from the pile, $1\le m\le 2k$ and so on, that is, each player, on its turn, removes a number of tokens from the pile that is between $1$ and twice the number of tokens his opponent took last. The player that removes the last token wins. For each value of $N$, find which player has a winning strategy and describe it.
  4. The infinite sequence $P_0(x),P_1(x),P_2(x),\ldots,P_n(x),\ldots$ is defined as \[P_0(x)=x,\quad P_n(x) = P_{n-1}(x-1)\cdot P_{n-1}(x+1),\, n\ge 1.\] Find the largest $k$ such that $P_{2014}(x)$ is divisible by $x^k$.
  5. There is an integer in each cell of a $2m\times 2n$ table. We define the following operation: choose three cells forming an L-tromino (namely, a cell $C$ and two other cells sharing a side with $C$, one being horizontal and the other being vertical) and sum $1$ to each integer in the three chosen cells. Find a necessary and sufficient condition, in terms of $m$, $n$ and the initial numbers on the table, for which there exists a sequence of operations that makes all the numbers on the table equal.
  6. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with incenter $I$ and incircle $\omega$. Circle $\omega_A$ is externally tangent to $\omega$ and tangent to sides $AB$ and $AC$ at $A_1$ and $A_2$, respectively. Let $r_A$ be the line $A_1A_2$. Define $r_B$ and $r_C$ in a similar fashion. Lines $r_A$, $r_B$ and $r_C$ determine a triangle $XYZ$. Prove that the incenter of $XYZ$, the circumcenter of $XYZ$ and $I$ are collinear.



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MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD PROBLEMS: Brazil Mathematical Olympiad 2014
Brazil Mathematical Olympiad 2014
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