Grade level 9 On a circle there are $99$ natural numbers. If $a,b$ are any two neighbouring numbers on the circle, then $a-b$ is equal to $1...

### Grade level 9

- On a circle there are $99$ natural numbers. If $a,b$ are any two neighbouring numbers on the circle, then $a-b$ is equal to $1$ or $2$ or $ \frac{a}{b}=2 $. Prove that there exists a natural number on the circle that is divisible by $3$.
- Sergei chooses two different natural numbers $a$ and $b$. He writes four numbers in a notebook: $a$, $a+2$, $b$ and $b+2$. He then writes all six pairwise products of the numbers of notebook on the blackboard. Let $S$ be the number of perfect squares on the blackboard. Find the maximum value of $S$.
- In a convex $n$-gon, several diagonals are drawn. Among these diagonals, a diagonal is called good if it intersects exactly one other diagonal drawn (in the interior of the $n$-gon). Find the maximum number of good diagonals.
- Let $M$ be the midpoint of the side $AC$ of acute-angled triangle $ABC$ with $AB>BC$. Let $\Omega $ be the circumcircle of $ ABC$. The tangents to $ \Omega $ at the points $A$ and $C$ meet at $P$, and $BP$ and $AC$ intersect at $S$. Let $AD$ be the altitude of the triangle $ABP$ and $\omega$ the circumcircle of the triangle $CSD$. Suppose $ \omega$ and $ \Omega $ intersect at $K\not= C$. Prove that $ \angle CKM=90^\circ $.
- Define $m(n)$ to be the greatest proper natural divisor of $n\in \mathbb{N}$. Find all $n \in \mathbb{N} $ such that $n+m(n) $ is a power of $10$.
- Let $ABCD$ be a trapezoid with $AB\parallel CD$ and $ \Omega $ is a circle passing through $A,B,C,D$. Let $ \omega $ be the circle passing through $C,D$ and intersecting with $CA,CB$ at $A_1$, $B_1$ respectively. $A_2$ and $B_2$ are the points symmetric to $A_1$ and $B_1$ respectively, with respect to the midpoints of $CA$ and $CB$. Prove that the points $A,B,A_2,B_2$ are concyclic.
- In a country, mathematicians chose an $\alpha> 2$ and issued coins in denominations of 1 ruble, as well as $\alpha ^k$ rubles for each positive integer k. $\alpha$ was chosen so that the value of each coins, except the smallest, was irrational. Is it possible that any natural number of rubles can be formed with at most 6 of each denomination of coins?
- In a country of $n$ cities, an express train runs both ways between any two cities. For any train, ticket prices either direction are equal, but for any different routes these prices are different. Prove that the traveler can select the starting city, leave it and go on, successively, $n-1$ trains, such that each fare is smaller than that of the previous fare. (A traveler can enter the same city several times.)

### Grade level 10

- Let $a$ be good if the number of prime divisors of $a$ is equal to $2$. Do there exist $18$ consecutive good natural numbers?
- Given a function $f\colon \mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R} $ with $f(x)^2\le f(y)$ for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R} $, $x>y$, prove that $f(x)\in [0,1] $ for all $x\in \mathbb{R}$.
- There are $n$ cells with indices from $1$ to $n$. Originally, in each cell, there is a card with the corresponding index on it. Vasya shifts the card such that in the $i$-th cell is now a card with the number $a_i$. Petya can swap any two cards with the numbers $x$ and $y$, but he must pay $2|x-y|$ coins. Show that Petya can return all the cards to their original position, not paying more than $|a_1-1|+|a_2-2|+\ldots +|a_n-n|$ coins.
- Given a triangle $ABC$ with $AB>BC$, let $ \Omega $ be the circumcircle. Let $M$, $N$ lie on the sides $AB$, $BC$ respectively, such that $AM=CN$. Let $K$ be the intersection of $MN$ and $AC$. Let $P$ be the incentre of the triangle $AMK$ and $Q$ be the $K$-excentre of the triangle $CNK$. If $R$ is midpoint of the arc $ABC$ of $ \Omega $ then prove that $RP=RQ$.
- Define $m(n)$ to be the greatest proper natural divisor of $n\in \mathbb{N}$. Find all $n \in \mathbb{N} $ such that $n+m(n) $ is a power of $10$.
- Let $M$ be the midpoint of the side $AC$ of $ \triangle ABC$. Let $P\in AM$ and $Q\in CM$ be such that $PQ=\frac{AC}{2}$. Let $(ABQ)$ intersect with $BC$ at $X\not= B$ and $(BCP)$ intersect with $BA$ at $Y\not= B$. Prove that the quadrilateral $BXMY$ is cyclic.
- In a country, mathematicians chose an $\alpha> 2$ and issued coins in denominations of 1 ruble, as well as $\alpha ^k$ rubles for each positive integer k. $\alpha$ was chosen so that the value of each coins, except the smallest, was irrational. Is it possible that any natural number of rubles can be formed with at most 6 of each denomination of coins?
- Given are $n$ pairwise intersecting convex $k$-gons on the plane. Any of them can be transferred to any other by a homothety with a positive coefficient. Prove that there is a point in a plane belonging to at least $1 +\frac{n-1}{2k}$ of these $k$-gons.

### Grade level 11

- Does there exist positive $a\in\mathbb{R}$, such that \[|\cos x|+|\cos ax| >\sin x +\sin ax \] for all $x\in\mathbb{R}$?
- Peter and Bob play a game on a $n\times n$ chessboard. At the beginning, all squares are white apart from one black corner square containing a rook. Players take turns to move the rook to a white square and recolour the square black. The player who can not move loses. Peter goes first. Who has a winning strategy?
- Positive rational numbers $a$ and $b$ are written as decimal fractions and each consists of a minimum period of 30 digits. In the decimal representation of $a-b$, the period is at least $15$. Find the minimum value of $k\in\mathbb{N}$ such that, in the decimal representation of $a+kb$, the length of period is at least $15$.
- Given a triangle $ABC$ with $AB>BC$, $ \Omega $ is circumcircle. Let $M$, $N$ are lie on the sides $AB$, $BC$ respectively, such that $AM=CN$. $K(.)=MN\cap AC$ and $P$ is incenter of the triangle $AMK$, $Q$ is K-excenter of the triangle $CNK$ (opposite to $K$ and tangents to $CN$). If $R$ is midpoint of the arc $ABC$ of $ \Omega $ then prove that $RP=RQ$.
- Call a natural number $n$ good if for any natural divisor $a$ of $n$, we have that $a+1$ is also divisor of $n+1$. Find all good natural numbers.
- The sphere $ \omega $ passes through the vertex $S$ of the pyramid $SABC$ and intersects with the edges $SA,SB,SC$ at $A_1,B_1,C_1$ other than $S$. The sphere $ \Omega $ is the circumsphere of the pyramid $SABC$ and intersects with $ \omega $ circumferential, lies on a plane which parallel to the plane $(ABC)$. Points $A_2,B_2,C_2$ are symmetry points of the points $A_1,B_1,C_1$ respect to midpoints of the edges $SA,SB,SC$ respectively. Prove that the points $A$, $B$, $C$, $A_2$, $B_2$, and $C_2$ lie on a sphere.
- If the polynomials $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ are written on a blackboard then we can also write down the polynomials $f(x)\pm g(x)$, $f(x)g(x)$, $f(g(x))$ and $cf(x)$, where $c$ is an arbitrary real constant. The polynomials $x^3-3x^2+5$ and $x^2-4x$ are written on the blackboard. Can we write a nonzero polynomial of form $x^n-1$ after a finite number of steps?
- Two players play a card game. They have a deck of $n$ distinct cards. About any two cards from the deck know which of them has a different (in this case, if $A$ beats $B$, and $B$ beats $C$, then it may be that $C$ beats $A$). The deck is split between players in an arbitrary manner. In each turn the players over the top card from his deck and one whose card has a card from another player takes both cards and puts them to the bottom of your deck in any order of their discretion. Prove that for any initial distribution of cards, the players can with knowing the location agree and act so that one of the players left without a card.

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