1. Let $n$ be an integer greater than two, and let $A_1,A_2, \cdots , A_{2n}$ be pairwise distinct subsets of $\{1, 2, ,n\}$. Determine the maximum value of \[\sum_{i=1}^{2n} \dfrac{|A_i \cap A_{i+1}|}{|A_i| \cdot |A_{i+1}|}.\] Where $A_{2n+1}=A_1$ and $|X|$ denote the number of elements in $X.$
  2. In triangle $ABC$, $AB = AC$. Point $D$ is the midpoint of side $BC$. Point $E$ lies outside the triangle $ABC$ such that $CE \perp AB$ and $BE = BD$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of segment $BE$. Point $F$ lies on the minor arc $\widehat{AD}$ of the circumcircle of triangle $ABD$ such that $MF \perp BE$. Prove that $ED \perp FD.$
  3. Prove that for every given positive integer $n$, there exists a prime $p$ and an integer $m$ such that
    a) $p \equiv 5 \pmod 6$.
    b) $p \nmid n$.
    c) $n \equiv m^3 \pmod p$.
  4. Let $x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n$ be real numbers with $x_1^2+x_2^2+\cdots+x_n^2=1$. Prove that \[\sum_{k=1}^{n}\left(1-\dfrac{k}{{\sum_{i=1}^{n} ix_i^2}}\right)^2 \cdot \dfrac{x_k^2}{k} \leq \left(\dfrac{n-1}{n+1}\right)^2 \sum_{k=1}^{n} \dfrac{x_k^2}{k}.\] Determine when does the equality hold?
  5. Let $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ be strictly increasing linear functions from $\mathbb R $ to $\mathbb R $ such that $f(x)$ is an integer if and only if $g(x)$ is an integer. Prove that for any real number $x$, $f(x)-g(x)$ is an integer.
  6. In acute triangle $ABC$, $AB > AC$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of side $BC$. The exterior angle bisector of $\widehat{BAC}$ meet ray $BC$ at $P$. Point $K$ and $F$ lie on line $PA$ such that $MF \perp BC$ and $MK \perp PA$. Prove that $$BC^2 = 4 PF \cdot AK.$$
  7. For given integer $n \geq 3$, set $S =\{p_1, p_2, \cdots, p_m\}$ consists of permutations $p_i$ of $(1, 2, \cdots, n)$. Suppose that among every three distinct numbers in $\{1, 2, \cdots, n\}$, one of these number does not lie in between the other two numbers in every permutations $p_i$ ($1 \leq i \leq m$). (For example, in the permutation $(1, 3, 2, 4)$, $3$ lies in between $1$ and $4$, and $4$ does not lie in between $1$ and $2$.) Determine the maximum value of $m$.
  8. Determine the least odd number $a > 5$ satisfying the following conditions: There are positive integers $m_1$, $m_2$, $n_1$, $n_2$ such that $a=m_1^2+n_1^2$, $a^2=m_2^2+n_2^2$, and $m_1-n_1=m_2-n_2.$

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