## [Solutions] United States of America Junior Mathematical Olympiad 2016

1. The isosceles triangle $\triangle ABC$, with $AB=AC$, is inscribed in the circle $\omega$. Let $P$ be a variable point on the arc $\stackrel{\frown}{BC}$ that does not contain $A$, and let $I_B$ and $I_C$ denote the incenters of triangles $\triangle ABP$ and $\triangle ACP$, respectively. Prove that as $P$ varies, the circumcircle of triangle $\triangle PI_BI_C$ passes through a fixed point.
2. Prove that there exists a positive integer $n < 10^6$ such that $5^n$ has six consecutive zeros in its decimal representation.
3. Let $X_1, X_2, \ldots, X_{100}$ be a sequence of mutually distinct nonempty subsets of a set $S$. Any two sets $X_i$ and $X_{i+1}$ are disjoint and their union is not the whole set $S$, that is, $X_i\cap X_{i+1}=\emptyset$ and $X_i\cup X_{i+1}\neq S$, for all $i\in\{1, \ldots, 99\}$. Find the smallest possible number of elements in $S$.
4. Find, with proof, the least integer $N$ such that if any $2016$ elements are removed from the set ${1, 2,...,N}$, one can still find $2016$ distinct numbers among the remaining elements with sum $N$.
5. Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute triangle, with $O$ as its circumcenter. Point $H$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $A$ to line $\overleftrightarrow{BC}$, and points $P$ and $Q$ are the feet of the perpendiculars from $H$ to the lines $\overleftrightarrow{AB}$ and $\overleftrightarrow{AC}$, respectively. Given that $AH^2=2\cdot AO^2$, prove that the points $O$, $P$ and $Q$ are collinear.
6. Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that$$(f(x)+xy)\cdot f(x-3y)+(f(y)+xy)\cdot f(3x-y)=(f(x+y))^2$$ for all $x,y\in \mathbb R$.