[Solutions] United States of America Junior Mathematical Olympiad 2017

  1. Prove that there are infinitely many distinct pairs $(a, b)$ of relatively prime integers $a>1$ and $b>1$ such that $a^b+b^a$ is divisible by $a+b$. 
  2. Consider the equation \[(3x^3+xy^2)(x^2y+3y^3)=(x-y)^7.\] a) Prove that there are infinitely many pairs $(x,y)$ of positive integers satisfying the equation.
    b) Describe all pairs $(x,y)$ of positive integers satisfying the equation. 
  3. Let $ABC$ be an equilateral triangle, and point $P$ on its circumcircle. Let $PA$ and $BC$ intersect at $D$, $PB$ and $AC$ intersect at $E$, and $PC$ and $AB$ intersect at $F$. Prove that the area of $\triangle DEF$ is twice the area of $\triangle ABC$.
  4. Are there any triples $(a,b,c)$ of positive integers such that $(a-2)(b-2)(c-2)+12$ is a prime number that properly divides the positive number $a^2+b^2+c^2+abc-2017$? 
  5. Let $O$ and $H$ be the circumcenter and the orthocenter of an acute triangle $ABC$. Points $M$ and $D$ lie on side $BC$ such that $BM=CM$ and $\angle BAD = \angle CAD$. Ray $MO$ intersects the circumcircle of triangle $BHC$ in point $N$. Prove that $\angle ADO = \angle HAN$. 
  6. Let $P_1$, $P_2$, $\dots$, $P_{2n}$ be $2n$ distinct points on the unit circle $x^2+y^2=1$, other than $(1,0)$. Each point is colored either red or blue, with exactly $n$ red points and $n$ blue points. Let $R_1$, $R_2$, $\dots$, $R_n$ be any ordering of the red points. Let $B_1$ be the nearest blue point to $R_1$ traveling counterclockwise around the circle starting from $R_1$. Then let $B_2$ be the nearest of the remaining blue points to $R_2$ travelling counterclockwise around the circle from $R_2$, and so on, until we have labeled all of the blue points $B_1, \dots, B_n$. Show that the number of counterclockwise arcs of the form $R_i \to B_i$ that contain the point $(1,0)$ is independent of the way we chose the ordering $R_1, \dots, R_n$ of the red points.
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