[Solutions] United States of America Mathematical Olympiad 2017

  1. Prove that there are infinitely many distinct pairs $(a, b)$ of relatively prime integers $a>1$ and $b>1$ such that $a^b+b^a$ is divisible by $a+b$. 
  2. Let $m_1, m_2, \ldots, m_n$ be a collection of $n$ positive integers, not necessarily distinct. For any sequence of integers $A = (a_1, \ldots, a_n)$ and any permutation $w = w_1, \ldots, w_n$ of $m_1, \ldots, m_n$, define an $A$-inversion of $w$ to be a pair of entries $w_i, w_j$ with $i < j$ for which one of the following conditions holds
    • $a_i \ge w_i > w_j$, 
    • $w_j > a_i \ge w_i$, or 
    • $w_i > w_j > a_i$.
    Show that, for any two sequences of integers $A = (a_1, \ldots, a_n)$ and $B = (b_1, \ldots, b_n)$, and for any positive integer $k$, the number of permutations of $m_1, \ldots, m_n$ having exactly $k$ $A$-inversions is equal to the number of permutations of $m_1, \ldots, m_n$ having exactly $k$ $B$-inversions.
  3. Let $ABC$ be a scalene triangle with circumcircle $\Omega$ and incenter $I$. Ray $AI$ meets $\overline{BC}$ at $D$ and meets $\Omega$ again at $M$; the circle with diameter $\overline{DM}$ cuts $\Omega$ again at $K$. Lines $MK$ and $BC$ meet at $S$, and $N$ is the midpoint of $\overline{IS}$. The circumcircles of $\triangle KID$ and $\triangle MAN$ intersect at points $L_1$ and $L_2$. Prove that $\Omega$ passes through the midpoint of either $\overline{IL_1}$ or $\overline{IL_2}$.
  4. Let $P_1$, $P_2$, $\dots$, $P_{2n}$ be $2n$ distinct points on the unit circle $x^2+y^2=1$, other than $(1,0)$. Each point is colored either red or blue, with exactly $n$ red points and $n$ blue points. Let $R_1$, $R_2$, $\dots$, $R_n$ be any ordering of the red points. Let $B_1$ be the nearest blue point to $R_1$ traveling counterclockwise around the circle starting from $R_1$. Then let $B_2$ be the nearest of the remaining blue points to $R_2$ travelling counterclockwise around the circle from $R_2$, and so on, until we have labeled all of the blue points $B_1, \dots, B_n$. Show that the number of counterclockwise arcs of the form $R_i \to B_i$ that contain the point $(1,0)$ is independent of the way we chose the ordering $R_1, \dots, R_n$ of the red points. 
  5. Let $\mathbb{Z}$ denote the set of all integers. Find all real numbers $c > 0$ such that there exists a labeling of the lattice points $ ( x, y ) \in \mathbb{Z}^2$ with positive integers for which 
    • only finitely many distinct labels occur, and
    • for each label $i$, the distance between any two points labeled $i$ is at least $c^i$.
  6. Find the minimum possible value of \[\frac{a}{b^3+4}+\frac{b}{c^3+4}+\frac{c}{d^3+4}+\frac{d}{a^3+4}\]given that $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$ are nonnegative real numbers such that $a+b+c+d=4$.
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