[Solutions] United States of America Mathematical Olympiad 2018

  1. Let \(a,b,c\) be positive real numbers such that \(a+b+c=4\sqrt[3]{abc}\). Prove that \[2(ab+bc+ca)+4\min(a^2,b^2,c^2)\ge a^2+b^2+c^2.\]
  2. Find all functions $f:(0,\infty) \rightarrow (0,\infty)$ such that \[f\left(x+\frac{1}{y}\right)+f\left(y+\frac{1}{z}\right) + f\left(z+\frac{1}{x}\right) = 1\]for all $x,y,z >0$ with $xyz =1$. 
  3. For a given integer $n\ge 2$, let $\{a_1,a_2,…,a_m\}$ be the set of positive integers less than $n$ that are relatively prime to $n$. Prove that if every prime that divides $m$ also divides $n$, then $a_1^k+a_2^k + \dots + a_m^k$ is divisible by $m$ for every positive integer $k$. 
  4. Let $p$ be a prime, and let $a_1, \dots, a_p$ be integers. Show that there exists an integer $k$ such that the numbers \[a_1 + k, a_2 + 2k, \dots, a_p + pk\]produce at least $\tfrac{1}{2} p$ distinct remainders upon division by $p$.
  5. In convex cyclic quadrilateral $ABCD$, we know that lines $AC$ and $BD$ intersect at $E$, lines $AB$ and $CD$ intersect at $F$, and lines $BC$ and $DA$ intersect at $G$. Suppose that the circumcircle of $\triangle ABE$ intersects line $CB$ at $B$ and $P$, and the circumcircle of $\triangle ADE$ intersects line $CD$ at $D$ and $Q$, where $C$, $B$, $P$, $G$ and $C$, $Q$, $D$, $F$ are collinear in that order. Prove that if lines $FP$ and $GQ$ intersect at $M$, then $\angle MAC = 90^\circ$. 
  6. Let $a_n$ be the number of permutations $(x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n)$ of the numbers $(1,2,\dots, n)$ such that the $n$ ratios $\frac{x_k}{k}$ for $1\le k\le n$ are all distinct. Prove that $a_n$ is odd for all $n\ge 1$.
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