[Solutions] United States of America Mathematical Olympiad 2019

  1. Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set of positive integers. A function $f:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N}$ satisfies the equation \[\underbrace{f(f(\ldots f}_{f(n)\text{ times}}(n)\ldots))=\frac{n^2}{f(f(n))}\]for all positive integers $n$. Given this information, determine all possible values of $f(1000)$.
  2. Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral satisfying $AD^2 + BC^2 = AB^2$. The diagonals of $ABCD$ intersect at $E$. Let $P$ be a point on side $\overline{AB}$ satisfying $\angle APD = \angle BPC$. Show that line $PE$ bisects $\overline{CD}$.
  3. Let $K$ be the set of all positive integers that do not contain the digit $7$ in their base-$10$ representation. Find all polynomials $f$ with nonnegative integer coefficients such that $f(n)\in K$ whenever $n\in K$.
  4. Let $n$ be a nonnegative integer. Determine the number of ways that one can choose $(n+1)^2$ sets $S_{i,j}\subseteq\{1,2,\ldots,2n\}$, for integers $i,j$ with $0\leq i,j\leq n$, such that
    • for all $0\leq i,j\leq n$, the set $S_{i,j}$ has $i+j$ elements; and
    • $S_{i,j}\subseteq S_{k,l}$ whenever $0\leq i\leq k\leq n$ and $0\leq j\leq l\leq n$.
  5. Two rational numbers \(\tfrac{m}{n}\) and \(\tfrac{n}{m}\) are written on a blackboard, where \(m\) and \(n\) are relatively prime positive integers. At any point, Evan may pick two of the numbers \(x\) and \(y\) written on the board and write either their arithmetic mean \(\tfrac{x+y}{2}\) or their harmonic mean \(\tfrac{2xy}{x+y}\) on the board as well. Find all pairs \((m,n)\) such that Evan can write 1 on the board in finitely many steps.
  6. Find all polynomials $P$ with real coefficients such that $$\frac{P(x)}{yz}+\frac{P(y)}{zx}+\frac{P(z)}{xy}=P(x-y)+P(y-z)+P(z-x)$$holds for all nonzero real numbers $x,y,z$ satisfying $2xyz=x+y+z$.
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