[Solutions] International Mathematical Olympiad 2019

  1. Let $\mathbb{Z}$ be the set of integers. Determine all functions $f: \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$ such that, for all integers $a$ and $b$, $$f(2a)+2f(b)=f(f(a+b)).$$
  2. In triangle $ABC$, point $A_1$ lies on side $BC$ and point $B_1$ lies on side $AC$. Let $P$ and $Q$ be points on segments $AA_1$ and $BB_1$, respectively, such that $PQ$ is parallel to $AB$. Let $P_1$ be a point on line $PB_1$, such that $B_1$ lies strictly between $P$ and $P_1$, and $\angle PP_1C=\angle BAC$. Similarly, let $Q_1$ be the point on line $QA_1$, such that $A_1$ lies strictly between $Q$ and $Q_1$, and $\angle CQ_1Q=\angle CBA$. Prove that points $P,Q,P_1$, and $Q_1$ are concyclic.
  3. A social network has $2019$ users, some pairs of whom are friends. Whenever user $A$ is friends with user $B$, user $B$ is also friends with user $A$. Events of the following kind may happen repeatedly, one at a time: Three users $A$, $B$, and $C$ such that $A$ is friends with both $B$ and $C$, but $B$ and $C$ are not friends, change their friendship statuses such that $B$ and $C$ are now friends, but $A$ is no longer friends with $B$, and no longer friends with $C$. All other friendship statuses are unchanged. Initially, $1010$ users have $1009$ friends each, and $1009$ users have $1010$ friends each. Prove that there exists a sequence of such events after which each user is friends with at most one other user.
  4. Find all pairs $(k,n)$ of positive integers such that \[ k!=(2^n-1)(2^n-2)(2^n-4)\cdots(2^n-2^{n-1}). \]
  5. The Bank of Bath issues coins with an $H$ on one side and a $T$ on the other. Harry has $n$ of these coins arranged in a line from left to right. He repeatedly performs the following operation: if there are exactly $k>0$ coins showing $H$, then he turns over the $k$th coin from the left; otherwise, all coins show $T$ and he stops. For example, if $n=3$ the process starting with the configuration $THT$ would be $THT \to HHT \to HTT \to TTT$, which stops after three operations.
    a) Show that, for each initial configuration, Harry stops after a finite number of operations.
    b) For each initial configuration $C$, let $L(C)$ be the number of operations before Harry stops. For example, $L(THT) = 3$ and $L(TTT) = 0$. Determine the average value of $L(C)$ over all $2^n$ possible initial configurations $C$.
  6. Let $I$ be the incentre of acute triangle $ABC$ with $AB\neq AC$. The incircle $\omega$ of $ABC$ is tangent to sides $BC, CA$, and $AB$ at $D, E,$ and $F$, respectively. The line through $D$ perpendicular to $EF$ meets $\omega$ at $R$. Line $AR$ meets $\omega$ again at $P$. The circumcircles of triangle $PCE$ and $PBF$ meet again at $Q$. Prove that lines $DI$ and $PQ$ meet on the line through $A$ perpendicular to $AI$.

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